FORTIFICATIONS / 3rd-7th century AD

 The military settlement which was constructed with the aim of defence is surrounded with the city walls which are 12-15 meters high and 2,1 – 3,2 meters thick. 10 bastions and 2 towers placed at certain intervals on the fortification wall with the length of 1.2 km. have been identified. There are also support walls protruding between the towers. It is observed that in some parts of the walls, especially in the eastern and southern parts, the bedrock has been carved and used as a city wall to a certain height and its surface has been straightened while the walls are formed of cut blocks.  In the construction of the city walls, the stone blocks have been carried into the settlement by using the quarry on the south. The reason why most of the bastions were built on the walls of the eastern fortress is that the only entrance into the castle and the ancient road were located in this section and the location has a topographical characteristic open to attacks.

The three-storey large tower for observing and defense purposes in the south of the settlement has been protected up to a height of 19.2 m. and its original height has been determined to be 21 m. The lower part of the tower has been constructed as a seven-step pedestal outward according to the slope incline of the tower. The place where the city wall joins with the tower at the northern wall can be understood easily and the wall height can be calculated in this way. A passage proceeding to underground was detected in the researches conducted in the southern tower and a part thereof was unearthed, but it was found that it was closed with good shaped blocks and mortar prior to the last siege.

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